In celebrating "National Liqueur Day" on October 16th, let's get to know a little more about that classification of alcohol - Liqueurs, also known as 'Cordials', which is the more widely used term in Europe. 'Liqueur' is used in the USA. The basic definition of a liqueur or cordial is "a sweet and syrupy product made from a base spirit, i.e. vodka, gin, rum, tequila, whiskey, and brandy. It is made by infusing fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and other naturally occurring products in the environment into a base spirit, therefore, lowering the alcohol content during distillation. Did you know that Southern Comfort is a liqueur? It is made from bourbon whiskey with a touch of honey and peaches, which is why it is sweet. Did you know that Drambuie is a liqueur made from Scotch with a touch honey? Perfect for a 'Rusty Nail'. There are thousands of liqueurs in the world today and many of them have the same flavor, but with subtle differences. It is essential to know that flavor so you can substitute wisely. Most of us will never taste or see them. Most cocktails from the beginning of time have incorporated a liqueur in their recipe. From a technical standpoint, the very definition of cocktail requires it or it would be just a spirit and mixer - not very exciting or sophisticated or complex. The blending of flavors and finding that right balance is what makes a cocktail taste great.
There are distinct classes of liqueurs, such as absinthe, amaretto, curacao, Irish cream, and triple sec, for which a variety of brands are available. Then, there are proprietary blends protected by specific brands and known only by the brand's name. The recipes of some of these liqueurs, like Averna, Benedictine, Chartreuse and Frangelico, date back centuries and are as popular today as they ever were. And yet, others (like Hpnotiq, PAMA, TY KU, and X-Rated) are new on the scene and are just as unique in their recipes.
It is not possible for me to list all of them from A-Z, but I will highlight the important and popular ones here along a famous cocktail they are used in -
Amaretto- An almond flavored liqueur made with apricot pits. This liqueur is commonly paired with a coffee liqueur in drinks like a Toasted Almond or used as a smooth liqueur in shooters or a drink like the Alabama Slammer.
Campari- A bitter Italian apèritif made with a unique blend of herbs and spices with orange being the dominant flavor. The secret recipe was originally developed by Gaspare Campari in 1860 for his Cafè Campari in Milan. Campari is often served on the rocks either by itself or mixed with club soda and is also a key ingredient in many aperitif cocktails such as Negroni and Americano.
Chambord- A liqueur that dates back to 1685 when Louis XIV visited Château de Chambord. Chambord is produced in the Loire valley in France and is made from red and black raspberries, honey, vanilla, and cognac. French Martini and Purple Hooter are examples.
Coffee liqueur - Coffee-flavored liqueur. The most popular coffee liqueur is the Mexican Kahlua. Others include Tia Maria from Jamaica, Expresso from dark-roasted Italian coffee, crème de café , and Pasha from Turkey. Any of the coffee liqueurs are great served ice-cold with heavy cream floating on top and are popular ingredients in a variety of cocktails.
Cointreau- A brand name orange-flavored liqueur that is considered a premium triple sec. Cosmos and Margaritas are examples.
Grand Marnier- A distinguished orange liqueur from France with a Cognac base that is considered an essential for a well-stocked bar.
Schnapps- Not typically a liqueur by strict definition, but a distilled spirit that is produced usually with fruits in the fermentation. Schnapps come in many flavors, with apple, cinnamon, and peppermint being favorites.
Southern Comfort- An American liqueur made from a whiskey base flavored with peaches. It is an excellent mixer and is 100 proof, adding to its comforting qualities. Popular cocktail is the Scarlet O'Hara.
Triple Sec- An often colorless orange-flavored liqueur that is often used as a generic name for orange liqueurs and called for in many cocktail recipes. Cointreau and Combier are premium brands of triple sec.
For a complete guide to liqueurs and cordials, visit http://cocktails.about.com/od/spirits/a/learn_liqueurs.htm
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